Era para terminar a saga como sempre na terceira parte mas não resisto a mostrar-vos (e poderão fazer o download) um artigo escrito por um professor de química da Universidade de St. Lawrence, de seu nome Paul Connett.
As 50 razões para nos opormos à fluoretação
- Fluoride is not an essential nutrient (NRC 1993 and IOM
1997). No disease has ever been linked to a fluoride deficiency.
Humans can have perfectly good teeth without fluoride.
- Fluoride is a cumulative poison. On average, only 50% of
the fluoride we ingest each day is excreted through the kidneys.
The remainder accumulates in our bones, pineal gland, and
other tissues. If the kidney is damaged, fluoride accumulation
will increase, and with it, the likelihood of harm.
- Fluoride is very biologically active even at low
concentrations. It interferes with hydrogen bonding (Emsley
1981) and inhibits numerous enzymes (Waldbott 1978).
- When complexed with aluminum, fluoride interferes with Gproteins
(Bigay 1985, 1987). Such interactions give aluminumfluoride
complexes the potential to interfere with many hormonal
and some neurochemical signals (Strunecka and Patocka 1999,
- Fluoride has been shown to be mutagenic, cause
chromosome damage and interfere with the enzymes involved
with DNA repair in a variety of cell and tissue studies (Tsutsui
1984; Caspary 1987; Kishi 1993 and Mihashi 1996). Recent
studies have also found a correlation between fluoride exposure
and chromosome damage in humans (Sheth 1994; Wu 1995;
Meng 1997 and Joseph 2000).
- Fluoride forms complexes with a large number of metal ions,
which include metals which are needed in the body (like calcium
and magnesium) and metals (like lead and aluminum) which are
toxic to the body. This can cause a variety of problems. For
example, fluoride interferes with enzymes where magnesium is
an important co-factor, and it can help facilitate the uptake of
aluminum and lead into tissues where these metals wouldn't
otherwise go (Mahaffey 1976; Allain 1996; Varner 1998).
- Rats fed for one year with 1 ppm fluoride in their water,
using either sodium fluoride or aluminum fluoride, had
morphological changes to their kidneys and brains, an increased
uptake of aluminum in the brain, and the formation of beta
amyloid deposits which are characteristic of Alzheimers disease
- Animal experiments show that fluoride accumulates in the
brain and exposure alters mental behavior in a manner
consistent with a neurotoxic agent (Mullenix 1995). Rats dosed
prenatally demonstrated hyperactive behavior. Those dosed
postnatally demonstrated hypoactivity (i.e. under activity or
"couch potato" syndrome). More recent animal experiments
have reported that fluoride can damage the brain (Wang 1997;
Guan 1998; Varner 1998; Zhao 1998; Zhang 1999; Lu 2000;
Shao 2000; Sun 2000; Bhatnagar 2002; Chen 2002, 2003; Long
2002; Shivarajashankara 2002a, b; Shashi 2003 and Zhai 2003)
and impact learning and behavior (Paul 1998; Zhang 1999,
2001; Sun 2000; Ekambaram 2001; Bhatnagar 2002).
- Five studies from China show a lowering of IQ in children associated with fluoride exposure (Lin Fa-Fu 1991; Li 1995;3
Zhao 1996; Lu 2000; and Xiang 2003a, b). One of these studies
(Lin Fa-Fu 1991) indicates that even just moderate levels of
fluoride exposure (e.g. 0.9 ppm in the water) can exacerbate the
neurological defects of iodine deficiency
- The only government-sanctioned animal study to investigate
if fluoride causes cancer, found a dose-dependent increase in
cancer in the target organ (bone) of the fluoride-treated (male)
rats (NTP 1990). The initial review of this study also reported an
increase in liver and oral cancers, however, all non-bone
cancers were later downgraded – with a questionable rationale -
by a government-review panel (Marcus 1990). In light of the
importance of this study, EPA Professional Headquarters Union
has requested that Congress establish an independent review to
examine the study's results (Hirzy 2000)
Por fim, deixo-vos com mais uma parte do mini documentário, the professional perspectives on water fluoridation, onde se explica claramente que o fluoretação é farmacologia do século passado, nada mais que isso...